Welcome to the forums
I understand your scenario very well. In the country I live there are quite some companies that have this kind of setup. However, there are a few issues around your scenario, but I will propose you also some alternatives.
1. Hyper-V in Windows 10 is not the same as Hyper-V in Windows Server 2012 R2. (and for that matter, there can be also differences with Windows Server 2016). If you restore a VM that is being backed up from 2012 R2 to a Windows 10 you could get into troubles as some specific server technology is not available in Windows 10. So your config might not work after a restore and you will need a lot of time fixing that.
2. In the case of 2016 versus 10 (for the future) it becomes even more confusing. 2016 is comparable with the anniversary update, but W10 moves faster so in a few months it can be already different. That and the fact that we know that windows 10 hyper-v is moving a bit into a different direction in the future. But we will need to see what the exact differences will be later on.
My suggestion for your scenario:
1. If you have a laptop / desktop available install windows server core or full on top of it and use it in your environment for emergency restores (as in your scenario), a secondary DC and the resources for surebackup (to test your backups on a regular schedule). In emergency this will gives you the quickest recovery possibility and it will run better then running your guests on a windows 10
2. If you don't have this, my proposal is to restore the backup as files (as in the VHDX only). Then create a new VM on that windows 10 desktop that you will use temporarily and attach the VHDX(-es) to it. Then you won't have those config issues and that is also a scenario that in most cases will work perfectly.
I know it is not direct recovery to windows 10, but the above are scenarios that are used by many smaller businesses for emergencies.
Hope it helps