Please keep in mind health check don't delete corrupted files, those files can be deleted only by retention rule.
As I mentioned in the previous post, it depends on what exactly corrupted in the backup file: metadata or VM disk blocks.
So, health check initiates a separate job session called "health check retry" in case of detecting corrupted data.
1. If the metadata corrupted - retry will create a new full backup file without deleting previous one.
If the VM disk blocks corrupted - retry will create a new increment file and will store valid data blocks in it without deleting previous backup chain (details described in User Guide here
2. The metadata corruption - mark the increment and all subsequent increments as corrupted in the configuration database and create a new increment during retry session.
The VM disk blocks - the same behavior as in case #1.
3. That behavior described in the User Guide, I will quote for you: "If the health check detects corrupted data, Veeam Backup & Replication completes the backup job with the Error status and starts the health check retry process." Thanks!